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Recommended Reading

Intelligence Collection

Alvarez, David. Secret Messages: Codebreaking and American Diplomacy 1930-1945. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2000.

Bennett, Ralph. Intelligence Investigations: How Ultra Changed History. London: Frank Cass, 1996.

Benson, Robert Louis, and Michael Warner, eds. VENONA: Soviet Espionage and the American Response, 1939-1957. Washington, DC: National Security Agency/Central Intelligence Agency, 1996.

Beschloss, Michael R. MAYDAY: Eisenhower, Khrushchev, and the U-2 Affair. New York: Harper & Row, 1986.

Bixler, Margaret T. Winds of Freedom: The Story of the Navajo Code Talkers of World War II. Darien, CT: Two Bytes Pub. Co., 1992.

Boyd, Carl. Hitler's Japanese Confidant: General Oshima Hiroshi and MAGIC Intelligence, 1941-1945. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1993.

Breindel, Eric M., and Herbert Romerstein. The Venona Secrets: The Soviet Union's World War II Espionage Campaign against the United States and How America Fought Back: A Story of Espionage, Counterespionage, and Betrayal. New York: Basic Books, 1999.

Brugioni, Dino. Eyes in the Sky: Eisenhower, the CIA, and Cold War Aerial Espionage. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2010.

Brugioni, Dino. From Balloons to Blackbirds: Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Imagery Intelligence: How It Evolved. McLean, VA: Association of Former Intelligence Officers, 1993.

Budiansky, Stephen. Battle of Wits: The Complete Story of Codebreaking in World War II. New York: Free Press, 2000.

Calvocoressi, Peter. Top Secret Ultra. London: Cassell, 1980.

Clark, Ronald W. The Man Who Broke Purple: The Life of Colonel William F. Friedman, Who Deciphemaroon The Japanese Code in World War II. Boston: Little, Brown, 1977.

Cothren, Marion Benedict. Cher Ami, the Story of a Carrier Pigeon. Boston, Little, Brown, and Co.: 1934.

See also the story of Cher Ami at:, and

Day, Dwayne A., John M. Logsdon, and Brian Latell, eds. Eye in the Sky: The Story of the Corona Spy Satellites. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1998.

Drea, Edward J. MacArthur’s ULTRA: Codebreaking and the War against Japan, 1942-1945. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1991.

Enever, Ted. Britain's Best Secret: Ultra's Base at Bletchley Park. Stroud, UK: Alan Sutton, 1994.

Finnegan, Terrence J. Shooting the Front: Allied Aerial Reconnaissance and Photographic Interpretation on the Western Front—World War I. Washington: National Defense Intelligence College, 2006.

Franco, Jere Bishop. Crossing the Pond: The Native American Effort in World War II. Denton TX: University of North Texas Press, 1999.

Freedman, Maurice. Unravelling Enigma: Winning the Code War at Station X. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Leo Cooper/Pen & Sword Books, 2000.

Harper, Stephen. Capturing Enigma: How HMS Petard Seized the German Naval Codes. New York: Sutton, 1999.

Haynes, John Earl, and Harvey Klehr. Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999.

Haynes, John Earl, et al. Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.

Hinsley, F.H., and Alan Stripp, eds. Codebreakers: The Inside Story of Bletchley Park. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Hodges, Andrew. Alan Turing: The Enigma of Intelligence. London: Simon & Schuster, 1987.

Kahn, David. Reader of Gentlemen’s Mail: Herbert O. Yardley and the Birth of American Codebreaking. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004.

Kahn, David. Seizing the Enigma: The Race to Break the German U-Boat Codes, 1939-1943. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1991.

Kahn, David. The Codebreakers: The Comprehensive History of Secret Communication from Ancient Times to the Internet. New York: Scribner, 1996.

Kawano, Kenji. Warriors: Navajo Code Talkers. Flagstaff, AZ: Northland Pub. Co., 1990.

Lamphere, Robert J., and Tom Shachtman. The FBI-KGB War: A Special Agent's Story. New York: Random House, 1986.

Lashmar, Paul. Spy Flights of the Cold War. Stroud, Gloucestershire: A. Sutton, 1996.

Meadows, William. The Comanche Code Talkers of World War II. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2002.

Parrish, Thomas. The Ultra Americans: The U.S. Role in Breaking the Nazi Codes. New York: Stein & Day, 1986.

Pedlow, Gregory W. and Donald E. Welzenbach. The CIA and the U-2 Program, 1954-1974. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency, Center for the Study of Intelligence, 1998.

Peebles, Curtis. The Corona Project: America's First Spy Satellites. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1997.

Pocock, Chris. 50 Years of the U-2: The Complete History of the “Dragon Lady.” Atglen: Schiffer Military History, 2005.

Powers, Francis Gary, with Curt Gentry. Operation Overflight: The U-2 Spy Pilot Tells His Story for the First Time. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970.

Powys-Lybbe, Ursula. The Eye of Intelligence. London: W. Kimber, 1983.

Romerstein, Herbert, and Eric Breindel. The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors. Washington, DC: Regnery, 2000.

Rowlett, Frank B. The Story of Magic: Memoirs of an American Cryptologic Pioneer. Laguna Hills, CA: Aegean Park Press, 1998.

Sebag-Montefiore, Hugh. Enigma: The Battle for the Code. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2000.

See also Navajo Code Talkers' Dictionary, at:

Sexton, Donald J., and Myron J. Smith, Jr. Electronic Intelligence in World War II: ULTRA and MAGIC -- A Bibliography. London: Meckler, 1994.

Sexton, Donald J., comp. Signals Intelligence in World War II: A Research Guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1996.

Singh, Simon. The Code Book: The Evolution of Secrecy from Mary Queen of Scots to Quantum Cryptography. New York: Doubleday, 1999.

Smith, Michael. Station X: The Codebreakers of Bletchley Park. London: Channel 4 Books/Macmillan, 1998.

Smith, Michael. The Emperor's Codes: The Role of Bletchley Park in Breaking Japan's Secret Ciphers. London: Bantam, 2001.

Stafford, David. Spies beneath Berlin. London: John Murray, 2002.

Usdin, Steven T. Engineering Communism: How Two Americans Spied for Stalin and Founded the Soviet Silicon Valley. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005.

Weinstein, Allen, and Alexander Vassiliev. The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America -- the Stalin Era. New York: Random House, 1999.

Welchman, Gordon. The Hut Six Story: Breaking the Enigma Codes. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982.

West, Nigel. Venona: The Greatest Secret of the Cold War. London: Harper Collins, 1999.

Winterbotham, F. W. The Ultra Spy: An Autobiography. London: Macmillan, 1989.

Yardley, Herbert O. The American Black Chamber. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2004.