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The Ancient World

Austin, Stephen, and N.B. Rankov. Exploratio: Military and Political Intelligence in the Roman World from the Second Punic War to the Battle of Adrianople. London: Routledge, 1995.

Chakraborty, Gayatri. Espionage in Ancient India: From the Earliest Times to 12th Century A.D. Calcutta, India: Minerva Associates, 1990.

Dubovsky, Peter. Hezekiah and the Assyrian Spies: Reconstruction of the Neo-Assyrian Intelligence Services and Its Significance for 2 Kings 18-19. Roma: Pontificio Istituto biblico, 2006.

Dvornik, Francis. Origins of Intelligence Services: The Ancient Near East, Persia, Greece, Rome, Byzantium, the Arab Muslim Empires, the Mongol Empire, China, Muscovy. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1974.

Gerolymatos, Andre. Espionage and Treason: A Study of the Proxenia in Political and Military Intelligence Gathering in Ancient Greece. Amsterdam: J.C. Gieben, 1986.

Kautilya. The Arthashastra. New York: Penguin, 1992.

Russell, Frank S. Information Gathering in Ancient Greece. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1999.

Sawyer, Ralph D. The Tao of Spycraft: Intelligence Theory and Practice in Traditional China. Boulder: Westview Press, 1998.

Sheldon, Rose Mary. Intelligence Activities in Ancient Rome: Trust the Gods But Verify. New York: Frank Cass, 2005.

Sheldon, Rose Mary. Operation Messiah: Roman Intelligence and the Birth of Christianity. Portland: Valentine Mitchell, 2008.

Sun Tzu. tr., Ralph D. Sawer. The Art of War. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1994.